Monday, January 13, 2020

The Indigo Spell Chapter Twenty-One

SOME PART OF ME BEGGED FOR there to be a mistake. I watched the footage three more times, tossing crazy theories around in my head. Maybe Master Jameson had a twin who wasn't a fanatic who hated vampires. No. The video didn't lie. Only the Alchemists did. I couldn't ignore this. I couldn't wait. I needed to resolve this immediately. If not sooner. I sent Marcus a text as soon as my plane was on the ground: We meet tonight. No games. No runaround. TONIGHT. There was no response from him by the time I got back to my dorm. What was he doing? Reading Catcher in the Rye again? If I'd known what dive he was holed up in, I would've marched over there right then. There was nothing I could do but wait, so I called Ms. Terwilliger both as a distraction and to buy some freedom. â€Å"Nothing to report,† she told me when she answered. â€Å"We're still just watching and waiting – although, your extra charm is almost complete.† â€Å"That's not why I'm calling,† I said. â€Å"I need you to get me a curfew extension tonight.† I felt bad using her for something totally unrelated, but I had to do this. â€Å"Oh? Are you paying me an unexpected visit?† â€Å"Er – no. This is for something else.† She clearly thought that was funny. â€Å"Now you use my assistance for personal matters?† â€Å"Don't you think I've earned it?† I countered. She laughed, something I hadn't heard from her in a while. She agreed to my request and promised to call the dorm's front desk right away. As soon as we hung up, my phone chimed with the expected message from Marcus. All the text contained was an address that was a half hour away. Assuming he was ready for me now, I grabbed my messenger bag and got on the road. In light of my past meetings with Marcus, I wouldn't have been surprised if he'd led me to a department store or karaoke bar. Instead, I arrived at a vintage music shop, the kind that sold vinyl records. A large CLOSED sign hung on the door, emphasized by dark windows and an empty parking lot. I got out of my car and double-checked the address, wondering if my GPS had led me astray. My earlier zeal gave way to nervousness. How careless was this? One of Wolfe's first lessons was to avoid sketchy situations, yet here I was, exposing myself. Then, from the shadows, I heard my name whispered. I turned toward the sound and saw Sabrina materialize out of the darkness, carrying a gun as usual. Maybe if I showed her the one in my glove compartment, we could have a bonding moment. â€Å"Go around back,† she said. â€Å"Knock on the door.† Without another word, she returned to the shadows. The back of the building looked like the kind of place that screamed mugging, and I wondered if Sabrina would come to my aid if needed. I knocked on the door, half expecting some kind of speakeasy situation where I'd be asked for a password like â€Å"rusted iguana.† Instead, Marcus opened the door, ready with one of those smiles he kept hoping would win me over. Strangely, tonight it put me at ease. â€Å"Hey, gorgeous, come on in.† I stepped past him and found we were in the store's back room, which was filled with tables, shelves, and boxes of records and cassette tapes. Wade and Amelia stood against a wall in mirrored stances, their arms crossed over their chests. Marcus shut the door behind me and locked it. â€Å"Glad to see you back in one piece. Judging from your text – and your face – you found something.† All the rage I'd been holding in since my discovery came bursting out. I retrieved my laptop from my bag and had to resist the urge to slam it against a table. â€Å"Yes! I can't believe it. You were right. Your insane, far-fetched theory was right. The Alchemists have been lying! Or, well, some of them. I don't know. Half of them don't know what the other half's doing.† I expected some smug remark from Marcus or at least an â€Å"I told you so.† But that handsome face was drawn and sad, reminding me of the picture I'd seen of him and Clarence. â€Å"Damn,† he said softly. â€Å"I was kind of hoping you'd come back with a bunch of boring video. Amelia, go swap with Sabrina. I want her to see this.† Amelia looked disappointed to be sent away, but she didn't hesitate to obey his order. By the time Sabrina came back in, I had the video cued up to the correct time. They gathered around me. â€Å"Ready?† I asked. They nodded, and I could see a mix of emotions in all of them. Here it was, the conspiracy theory they'd all been waiting to prove. At the same time, the implications were staggering, and the three of them were well aware of how dangerous what they were about to see could be. I played the video. It was only a few seconds long, but they were powerful ones as that bearded figure appeared on the screen. I heard an intake of breath from Sabrina. â€Å"It's him. Master Jameson.† She looked between all our faces. â€Å"That's really the Alchemist place? He's really there?† â€Å"Yes,† said Wade. â€Å"And that's Dale Hawthorne with him, one of the directors.† That triggered a memory. â€Å"I know that name. He's one of Stanton's peers, right?† â€Å"Pretty much.† â€Å"Is it possible she wouldn't know about a visit like this?† I asked. â€Å"Even at her level?† It was Marcus who answered. â€Å"Maybe. Although, walking him right in there – even to the secure level – is pretty ballsy. Even if she doesn't know about the meeting, it's a safe bet others do. If it were completely shady, Hawthorne would've met him off-site. Of course, the secure list means this wasn't out in the open either.† So, it was possible Stanton hadn't lied to me – well, at least not about the Alchemists being in contact with the Warriors. She'd certainly lied about the Alchemists knowing about Marcus since he'd said he was a notorious figure to most higher-ups. Even if she was ignorant about Master Jameson, it didn't change the fact that other Alchemists – important ones – were keeping some dangerous company. Maybe I didn't always like their procedures, but I'd desperately wanted to believe they were doing good in the world. Maybe they were. Maybe they weren't. I just didn't know anymore. When I dragged my eyes from the frozen frame of Master Jameson, I found Marcus watching me. â€Å"Are you ready?† he asked. â€Å"Ready for what?† He walked over to another table and returned with a small case. When he opened it, I saw a small vial of silver liquid and a syringe. â€Å"What is – oh.† Realization hit me. â€Å"That's the blood that'll break the tattoo.† He nodded. â€Å"Pulling the elements out creates a reaction that turns it silver. It takes a few years, but eventually, the gold in your skin will fade to silver too.† All of them were looking at me expectantly, and I took a step back. â€Å"I don't know if I'm ready for this.† â€Å"Why wait?† asked Marcus. He pointed at the laptop. â€Å"You've seen this. You know what they're capable of. Can you keep lying to yourself? Don't you want to go forward with your eyes open?† â€Å"Well . . . yes, but I don't know if I'm ready to have some strange substance injected into me.† Marcus filled the syringe with the silver liquid. â€Å"I can demonstrate on my tattoo if it'll make you feel better. It won't hurt me, and you can see that there aren't any dire side effects.† â€Å"We don't know for sure that they've done anything to me,† I protested. He had a logical argument, but I was still terrified of taking this step. I could feel my hands shaking. â€Å"This could be a waste. There may be no group loyalty compulsion in me.† â€Å"But you also don't know for sure,† he countered. â€Å"And there's always a little loyalty put in the initial tattoo. I mean, not enough to make you some slave robot, but still. Wouldn't you feel better knowing everything's gone?† I couldn't take my eyes off the needle. â€Å"Will I feel any different?† â€Å"No. Although you could walk up to someone on the street and start telling them about vampires.† I couldn't tell if he was joking or not. â€Å"Then you'd just get thrown into a psych ward.† Was I ready for this? Was I really going to take the next step into becoming part of Marcus's Merry Men? I'd passed his test – which he'd been right about. Clearly, this group wasn't useless. They had eyes on the Alchemists and the Warriors. They also seemingly had the Moroi's best interests at heart. The Moroi – or, more specifically, Jill. I hadn't forgotten Sabrina's offhand remark about the Warriors being interested in a missing girl. Who else could it be but Jill? And did this Hawthorne guy have access to her location? Had he passed it on to Master Jameson? And would this information put those around her at risk, like Adrian? They were questions I didn't have the answers to, but I had to uncover them. â€Å"Okay,† I said. â€Å"Do it.† Marcus didn't waste any time. I think he was afraid I'd change my mind – which, perhaps, was not an unfounded fear. I sat down in one of the chairs and tipped my head to the side so that he'd have access to my cheek. Wade gently held my head with his hands. â€Å"Just to make sure you stay still,† he told me apologetically Before Marcus started, I asked, â€Å"Where'd you learn to do this?† His face had been solemn with the task ahead, but my question made him smile again. â€Å"I'm not technically tattooing you, if that's what you're worried about,† he said. I was actually worried about a lot of things. â€Å"These are just some small injections, just like being re-inked.† â€Å"What about the process itself? How'd you find out about it?† It was probably a question I should have asked before I sat down in this chair. But I hadn't expected to be doing this so soon – or suddenly. â€Å"A Moroi friend of mine theorized about it. I volunteered to be a guinea pig, and it worked.† He switched to business mode again and held up the needle. â€Å"Ready?† I took a deep breath, feeling like I was standing on the edge of a precipice. Time to jump. â€Å"Go ahead.† It hurt about as much as re-inking did, just a number of small pricks on my skin. Uncomfortable, but not really painful. In truth, it wasn't a long process, but it felt like it took forever. All the while, I kept asking myself, What are you doing? What are you doing? At last, Marcus stepped back and regarded me with shining eyes. Sabrina and Wade smiled too. â€Å"There you go,† Marcus said. â€Å"Welcome to the ranks, Sydney.† I took my compact out of my purse to check the tattoo. My skin was pink from the needle's piercing, but if this process continued to be like re-inking, that irritation would fade soon. Otherwise, the lily looked unchanged. I also didn't feel that changed on the inside. I didn't want to storm the Alchemist facility and demand justice or anything like that. Taking him up on his dare to tell an outsider about vampires was probably my best bet to see if my tattoo had been altered, but I didn't really feel like doing that either. â€Å"That's it?† I asked. â€Å"That's it,† Marcus said. â€Å"Once we get it sealed, you won't have to worry about – â€Å" â€Å"I'm not getting it sealed.† All those smiles vanished. Marcus looked confused, as though he might have misheard. â€Å"You have to. We're going to Mexico next weekend. Once that's done, the Alchemists won't ever be able to get to you again.† â€Å"I'm not getting it sealed,† I repeated. â€Å"And I'm not going to Mexico.† I gestured toward my laptop. â€Å"Look what I was able to pull off! If I stay where I'm at, I can keep finding out more. I can find out what else the Alchemists and Warriors are doing together.† I can find out if Jill is in danger. â€Å"Getting permanently marked and becoming an outcast kills all those opportunities for me. There's no going back after that.† I think Marcus almost always got his way, and this new development totally threw him off. Wade took up the argument. â€Å"There's no going back now. You're leaving a trail of bread crumbs. Look at what you've done. You already made inquiries about Marcus. Even if you haven't gotten super-friendly with the Moroi, the Alchemists still know you spend a lot of time with them. And one day, someone may realize you were there when the data was stolen.† â€Å"No one knows it was stolen,† I said promptly. â€Å"You hope they don't,† corrected Wade. â€Å"These little things are enough to raise red flags. Keep doing more, and you'll make it worse. They'll finally notice you, and that's when it'll be over.† Marcus had recovered from his initial shock. â€Å"Exactly. Look, if you want to stay where you're at until we go to Mexico, that's fine. Make your peace with it or whatever. After that, you need to escape. We'll keep working from the outside.† â€Å"You can do whatever you want.† I began packing up my laptop. â€Å"I'm going to work from the inside.† Marcus caught hold of my arm. â€Å"You're setting yourself up for a fall, Sydney!† he said sternly. â€Å"You're going to get caught.† I pulled away from him. â€Å"I'll be careful.† â€Å"Everyone makes mistakes,† said Sabrina, speaking up for the first time in a while. â€Å"I'll take that risk.† I slung my bag over my shoulder. â€Å"Unless you guys are going to forcibly stop me?† None of them answered. â€Å"Then I'm going. I'm not afraid of the Alchemists. Thank you for everything you've done. I really do appreciate it.† â€Å"Thank you,† said Marcus at last. He shook his head at Wade, who looked like he wanted to protest. â€Å"For getting the data. I honestly didn't think you'd be able to pull it off. I figured you'd return empty-handed, though I still would've broken the tattoo for you. A for effort, you know. Instead, you just proved what I'd thought before: you're remarkable. We could really use you.† â€Å"Well, you know how to get in touch with me.† â€Å"And you know how to get in touch with us,† he said. â€Å"We'll be here all week if you change your mind.† I opened the door. â€Å"I won't. I'm not running away.† Amelia called goodbye to me when I got into my car, oblivious to the fact that I'd just defied her beloved leader. As I drove back to Amberwood, I was amazed at how free I felt – and it had nothing to do with the tattoo. It was the knowledge that I had defied everyone – the Alchemists, the Warriors, the Merry Men. I didn't answer to anyone, no matter the cause. I was my own person, able to take my own actions. It wasn't something I had a lot of experience with. And I was about to do something drastic. I hadn't told Marcus and the gang because I'd been afraid they really would stop me. When I got back to Amberwood, I went straight to my room and dialed Stanton. She answered on the first ring, which I took as a divine sign that I was doing the right thing. â€Å"Miss Sage, this is unexpected. Did you enjoy the services?† â€Å"Yes,† I said. â€Å"They were very enlightening. But that's not why I'm calling. We have a situation. The Warriors of Light are looking for Jill.† I wasn't going to waste any time. â€Å"Why on earth would they do that?† She sounded legitimately surprised, but if there was one thing in all of this that I believed wholeheartedly, it was that the Alchemists were exceptional liars. â€Å"Because they know if Jill's whereabouts got out, it could throw the Moroi into chaos. Their focus is still on the Strigoi, but they wouldn't mind seeing thing go bad for the Moroi.† â€Å"I see.† I always wondered if she paused to gather her thoughts or if it was simply for effect. â€Å"And how exactly did you learn this?† â€Å"That guy I know who used to be with the Warriors. We're still friendly, and he's been having doubts about them. He mentioned hearing them talk about finding a missing girl that could cause all sorts of trouble.† Maybe it was wrong to drag Trey into this lie, but I seriously doubted Stanton would interrogate him anytime soon. â€Å"And you assume this is Miss Dragomir?† â€Å"Come on,† I exclaimed. â€Å"Who else would it be? Do you know any other Moroi girls? Of course it's her!† â€Å"Calm down, Miss Sage.† Her voice was flat and untroubled. â€Å"There's no need for theatrics.† â€Å"There's a need for action! If they might be on to her, then we need to get out of Palm Springs immediately.† â€Å"That,† she said crisply, â€Å"is not an option. A lot of planning went into getting her to her current location.† I didn't believe that argument for a second. Half our job was doing damage control and adapting to rapidly changing situations. â€Å"Yeah? Well, did you also plan on those psycho vampire hunters finding her?† Stanton ignored the jab. â€Å"Do you have any evidence at all that the Warriors actually have concrete data about her? Did your friend supply you with details?† â€Å"No,† I admitted. â€Å"But we still need to do something.† â€Å"There's no ‘we' here.† Her voice had gone from flat to icy. â€Å"You do not decide what we do.† I nearly protested and then caught myself. Horror set in. What had I just done? My initial intent had been to either get Stanton to take legitimate action or else find out if she might accidentally reveal knowledge of a Warrior connection. I'd thought mentioning Trey would give me valid backup since I could hardly tell her the real reason I feared for Jill. Yet, somehow, I'd gone from a request to a demand. I'd practically yelled an order at her. That wasn't typical Sydney behavior. That wasn't typical Alchemist behavior. What had Wade said? You're leaving a trail of bread crumbs. Was this because I'd broken the tattoo? This was no crumb. This was a full loaf. I was on the verge of insubordination, and my mind could suddenly imagine that list Marcus kept warning about, the one that kept track of every suspicious thing I did. Was Stanton already updating that list right now? I had to fix this, but how? How on earth did I take this back? My mind was racing frantically, and it took several moments for me to calm down and start thinking logically. The mission. Focus on the mission. Stanton would understand that. â€Å"I'm sorry, ma'am,† I said at last. Be calm. Be deferential. â€Å"I'm just . . . I'm just so worried about this mission. I saw my dad at the services, you know.† That would be a fact she could check on. â€Å"You had to have seen how it was that night I left. How bad things are between us. I . . . I have to make him proud. If things fall apart here, he'll never forgive me.† She didn't respond, so I prayed that meant she was listening intently . . . and believing me. â€Å"I want to do a good job here. I want to fulfill our goals and keep Jill hidden. But there have already been so many complications no one predicted – first Keith and then the Warriors. I just never feel like she's fully safe now, even with Eddie and Angeline. It eats at me. And – † I was no actress who could muster tears, but I did my best to make my voice crack. â€Å"And I never feel safe. I told you, when I asked to go to the services, how overwhelming it is with the Moroi. They're everywhere – and the dhampirs too. I eat with them. I'm in class with them. Being with other Alchemists this last weekend was a lifesaver. I mean, I'm not trying to dodge my duties, ma'am. I understand we have to make sacrifices. And I've gotten better around them, but sometimes the stress is just unbearable – and then when I heard this thing about the Warriors, I cracked. All I could think about was that I might fail. I'm sorry, ma'am. I shouldn't have flipped o ut on you. I was out of control, and it was unacceptable.† I cut off my rant and tensed as I waited for her response. Hopefully I'd given her enough to dismiss any thoughts of me being a dissident. Of course, I might have just come off as a totally weak and unstable Alchemist who needed to be pulled from this mission. If that happened . . . well, maybe I'd have to take Marcus up on Mexico. Her characteristic pause was especially painful this time. â€Å"I see,† she said. â€Å"Well, I'll take this all into consideration. This mission is of the utmost importance, believe me. My earlier questioning of your information was not some weakening of our resolve. Your concerns have been heard, and I will decide the best course of action.† It wasn't exactly what I wanted, but hopefully she would be true to her word. I really, really wanted to believe she was on the up-and-up. â€Å"Thank you, ma'am.† â€Å"Is there anything else, Miss Sage?† â€Å"No, ma'am. And . . . and I'm sorry ma'am.† â€Å"Your apology is noted.† Click. I'd paced while I'd talked and now stood staring at the phone. A gut instinct told me I really had driven Stanton to take some sort of action. The mystery was whether that action would prove beneficial or catastrophic for me. Falling asleep was difficult after that, and it had nothing to do with Veronica for a change. I was too keyed up, too anxious about what had happened with Marcus and Stanton. I tried to seize that feeling of freedom again, using it to strengthen me. It was only a spark this time, flickering with my new uncertainties, but it was better than nothing. I fell asleep sometime around three. I had a vague sense of a couple hours passing before I was swept into one of Adrian's dreams, back in the reception hall. â€Å"Finally,† he said. â€Å"I almost gave up checking in. I thought you were going to pull an all-nighter.† He'd stopped wearing his suit in these dreams, probably because I always showed up in jeans. Tonight he wore jeans also, along with a plain black T-shirt. â€Å"Me too.† I wrung my hands and began pacing here as well. The nervous energy from my waking self had carried over into the dream. â€Å"A lot of stuff's kind of happened tonight.† The dream felt real, solid. Adrian was sober. â€Å"Didn't you just get back? How much could've happened?† When I told him, he shook his head in amazement. â€Å"Man, Sage. It's all or nothing with you. Never a dull moment.† I came to a halt in front of him and leaned against a table. â€Å"I know, I know. Do you think I just made a huge mistake? God, maybe Marcus was right, and there was some compulsion forcing me to be loyal in the tattoo. I'm free for one hour and completely go over the edge with my superior.† â€Å"It sounds like you covered your tracks,† he said, though a small frown appeared on his face. â€Å"But I would be disappointed if they sent you somewhere less stressful. That seems like it might be the worst-case scenario from everything you said.† I started laughing, but it was the hysterical kind. â€Å"What in the world's happened to me? I was doing crazy stuff way before Marcus broke the tattoo tonight. Meeting with rebels, chasing evil sorceresses, even buying that dress! Yelling at Stanton is just one more thing on a long list of insanity. It's just like I said at Pies and Stuff: I don't know who I am anymore.† Adrian smiled and clasped my hands, taking a few steps toward me. â€Å"Well, first off, I'm the expert in insanity, and this is nothing. And as for who you are, you're the same beautiful, brave, and ridiculously smart caffeinated fighter you've been since the day I met you.† Finally, he put â€Å"beautiful† at the top of his list of adjectives. Not that I should have cared. â€Å"Sweet talker,† I scoffed. â€Å"You didn't know anything about me the first time we met.† â€Å"I knew you were beautiful,† he said. â€Å"I just hoped for the rest.† He always got this glint in his eyes when he complimented my looks, like he was seeing so much more than just my actual appearance. It was disorienting and heady . . . but I didn't mind. And that wasn't the only thing I suddenly found overwhelming. How had he gotten so close to me without me even realizing it? It was like he had secret stealth abilities. His hands were warm on mine, our fingers locked together. I still had remnants of that earlier joy within me, and being connected to him amplified those feelings. The green of his eyes was as lovely as usual, and I wondered if mine had the same effect on him. There was a little amber mixed with the brown that he had once said looked like gold. He's the only one who never tells me to do anything, I realized. Oh, sure, he asked me to do lots of things, often with cajoling and fast talking. But he made no demands on me, not like the Alchemists or Marcus. Even Jill and Angeline tended to preface their requests with, â€Å"You have to . . .† â€Å"Speaking of that dress,† he added, â€Å"I still haven't seen it.† I laughed softly. â€Å"You couldn't handle it.† He raised an eyebrow at that. â€Å"Is that a challenge, Sage? I can handle a lot.† â€Å"Not if our history is any indication. Each time I wear some moderately attractive dress, you lose it.† â€Å"That's not exactly true,† he said. â€Å"I lose it no matter what you're wearing. And that red dress was not ‘moderately attractive.' It was like a piece of heaven here on earth. A red, silky piece of heaven.† I should've rolled my eyes. I should've told him I wasn't here for his personal entertainment. But there was something in the way he was looking at me and something in the way I felt tonight that made me want to see his reaction. Breaking the tattoo hadn't affected anything between us, but it – and the deeds I'd done this weekend – had left me feeling bold. For the first time, I wanted to take a risk with him, despite my usual set of logical arguments. Besides, there was nothing dangerous in letting him look. I manipulated the dream the way he'd taught me. A few moments later, the lacy minidress replaced my jeans and blouse. I even summoned the heels, which bumped my height up. I was still nowhere near as tall as him, but the small boost brought our faces closer together. His eyes widened. Still holding my hands, he took a step back so that he could take in the whole look. There was almost something tangible to the way his gaze swept my body. I could practically feel every place it touched. By the time his eyes reached mine again, my breathing was heavy, and I was acutely aware that there really wasn't that much clothing between the two of us. Maybe there was something dangerous in letting him look after all. â€Å"A piece of heaven?† I managed to ask. He slowly shook his head. â€Å"No. The other place. The one I'm going to burn in for thinking what I'm thinking.† He'd moved toward me again. His hands released mine and moved to my waist, and I noticed I wasn't the only one breathing heavily. He pulled me to him, bringing our bodies together. The world was all heat and electricity, thick with tension that was only one spark away from exploding around us. I was balancing on another precipice, which wasn't easy to do in heels. I wrapped my arms around his neck, and this time I was the one who drew him closer. â€Å"Damn,† he murmured. â€Å"What?† I asked, never taking my eyes off his. He ran his hands over my hips. â€Å"I'm not supposed to kiss you.† â€Å"It's okay.† â€Å"What is?† â€Å"It's okay if I kiss you.† Adrian Ivashkov wasn't easy to surprise, but I surprised him then when I brought his mouth toward mine. I kissed him, and for a moment, he was too stunned to respond. That lasted for, oh, about a second. Then the intensity I'd come to know so well in him returned. He pushed me backward, lifting me so that I sat on the table. The tablecloth bunched up, knocking over some of the glasses. I heard what sounded like a china plate crash against the floor. Whatever logic and reason I normally possessed had melted away. There was nothing but flesh and fire left, and I wasn't going to lie to myself – at least not tonight. I wanted him. I arched my back, fully aware of how vulnerable that made me and that I was giving him an invitation. He accepted it and laid me back against the table, bringing his body down on top of mine. That crushing kiss of his moved from my mouth to the nape of my neck. He pushed down the edge of my dress and the bra strap underneath, exposing my shoulder and giving his lips more skin to conquer. A glass rolled off and smashed, soon followed by another. Adrian broke off his kissing, and I opened my eyes. He had an exasperated look on his face. â€Å"A table,† he said. â€Å"A goddamned table.† A few moments later, the table was gone. I was in his apartment, on his bed, and was glad that I no longer had silverware underneath me. With the venue change complete, his lips found mine again. The urgency in the way I responded surprised even me. I never would've thought myself capable of a feeling so primal, so removed from the reason that usually governed my actions. My nails dug into his back, and he trailed his lips down the edge of my chin, down the center of my neck. He kept going until he reached the bottom of the dress's V-neck. I let out a small gasp, and he kissed all around the neckline, just enough to tease. â€Å"Don't worry,† he murmured. â€Å"The dress stays on.† â€Å"Oh? Is that your decision to make?† â€Å"Yes,† he said. â€Å"You're not losing your virginity in a dream. If that's even possible. I don't want to deal with the philosophical side of it. And besides, there's no need to rush anyway. Sometimes it's worth lingering on the journey for a while before getting to the destination.† Metaphors. This was the cost of making out with an artist. I nearly said as much. Then his hand slid up my bare leg, and I was lost again. Maybe the dress was staying on, but he didn't mind taking liberties with it. That hand slipped under my dress, running along the side of my leg and up to my hip. I burned where he touched me, and everything within me became focused on that hand. It was moving far too slowly, and I grabbed it, ready to urge it on. Adrian chuckled and caught hold of my wrist, pulling my hand away and pinning it down against the covers. â€Å"Never thought I'd be the one slowing you down.† I opened my eyes and met his. â€Å"I'm a quick study.† All that burning and animal need within me must have shone through because he caught his breath and lost the smile. He released my wrist and cupped my face in his hands, bringing his face down only a whisper away from mine. â€Å"Good God, Sydney. You are – † The passion in his eyes turned to surprise, and he suddenly looked up. â€Å"What's wrong?† I asked, wondering if this was some weird part of â€Å"the journey.† He grimaced and began to fade away before my eyes. â€Å"You're being woken up.†

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Vietnam s Smoking Situation As A Case Study - 885 Words

III. Vietnam’s smoking situation as a case study 1. Smoking in Viet Nam Viet Nam is one of the countries that have the highest smoking rate in the world. In 2010, almost a half of Vietnamese men (47.4%) and 1.4% of Vietnamese female citizens were reported as smokers. From 2002 to 2010, the smoking rates had reduced (male: 56.1% to 47.4%; female: 1.8% to 1.4%). However, due to the Vietnamese population had skyrocketed during 10 years before 2010, the absolute number of Vietnamese smokers had unlikely declined from 1997 to 2010, around 15.5 million and 15.3 million, respectively. Moreover, some experts view that due to the globalization and ‘rising income’ in Viet Nam may lead to the increase of female smokers in future. More seriously, smoking also influenced to non-smokers who was suffering second-hand smoke. In 2001/2002, 63% Vietnamese families have smokers and 71% Vietnamese children under 6 year old lived in smoking environment. Tobacco use has been a leading cause of killing non-communicable in Viet Nam, such as lung cancer. According to a report in 2007, 87% of lung cancer male patients in Viet Nam were ‘current or ex-smokers’ and this number of female patients was 11%. It caused approximately 44,000 deaths in 2008 and this number was predicted to grow up to more than 50,000 in 2023. Smoking charges directly to the income of smokers and Vietnamese smokers totally paid approximately VND14,000 billion for tobacco. In addition, tobacco use also imposes aShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Book The Outsiders 1106 Words   |  5 PagesGreasers and the Socs) in the town of Tulsa, Oklahoma. During the 1960’s there were many social changes that divided many and ended in violence (Hinton 2). The publishers chose to publish the book using her initials to make The Outsiders more appealing to their male readers. When The Outsiders was published it was a very controversial book, and I believe it still is. S.E. Hinton wrote this book because she â€Å"mad about the social situat ion† that was going on in her very own high school, â€Å"where everyone gotRead MorePsychological Effects Of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay1856 Words   |  8 Pagesdisorder can be considered as â€Å"brain injury† related to mental problems, such as emotional disorders and fanciful psychological behaviors. The root of PTSD is usually the experience of extremely shocking events which cause severe concussion in human s brain and consciousness. The patients could be the witnesses of dire deaths of their teammates during the wars or a natural disaster, for example an earthquake, a tsunami, a volcanic eruption, in which they feel that their life is in danger and theyRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Not Be Banned1136 Words   |  5 Pagestoday if it wasn’t for reliance on animal testing. However, because of all the improvement in technology we have started to lean away from some animal practices. Which is excellent because some of the cruel testing has starte d to die down, some studies showed that testing isn’t always as effective in the ways we expected. Even though, it is impossible to say that animal testing has not been useful, it has been shown that the method hasn’t always provided helpful solutions. Animal testing is aRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder in War Veterans2507 Words   |  11 Pagesoverwhelming the individuals ability to cope. As an effect of psychological trauma, PTSD is less frequent and more enduring than the more commonly seen acute stress response. Diagnostic symptoms for PTSD include re-experiencing the original trauma(s) through flashbacks or nightmares, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma, and increased arousalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, anger, and hyper vigilance. Formal diagnostic criteria in DSM-IV-TR require that the symptoms lastRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder in War Veterans2491 Words   |  10 Pagesoverwhelming the individuals ability to cope. As an effect of psychological trauma, PTSD is less frequent and more enduring than the more commonly seen acute stress response. Diagnostic symptoms for PTSD include re-experiencing the original trauma(s) through flashbacks or nightmares, avoidance o f stimuli associated with the trauma, and increased arousal—such as difficulty falling or staying asleep, anger, and hyper vigilance. Formal diagnostic criteria in DSM-IV-TR require that the symptoms lastRead MoreSubstance Abuse and Addiction Essay1957 Words   |  8 Pagesand addiction have become a social problem that afflicts millions of individuals and disrupts the lives of their families and friends. Just one example reveals the extent of the problem: in the United States each year, more women and men die of smoking related lung cancer than of colon, breast and prostate cancers combined (Kola Kruszynski, 2010). In addition to the personal impact of so much illness and early death, there are dire social costs: huge expenses for medical and social services;Read MoreSubstance Abuse Among Asian Americans Essay2449 Words   |  10 Pagesabuse among all the ethnic groups in the US (Kim, Ziedonis, Chen, 2007). In fact, studies suggest that Asian American youth are more vulnerable for emotional and social difficulties than youth of other races or ethnicities (Wong et al. 1998). As a group of immigrants, Asian American youth often face acculturation stressors like low self-esteem, high depression and anxiety and social isolation, and more and more studies have reported various behavior problems among Asian American youth, like gang activitiesRead MoreTop 10 Countries Where You Can Get A Mail Order Bride2024 Words   |  9 PagesTop 10 countries where you can get a mail-order bride Ever since the dawn of the internet people have found ingenious ways of using it to solve innumerable modern-day problems, and the case is no different for love and relationships. Given the turbulent state of world economies, social pressures and busy work schedules, finding a bride can easily become a complicated affair for many men, and this is where mail-order bride services come in. They offer lonely men, with a fair bit of cash, the opportunityRead MoreForrest Gump as the Modern Day Fairytale Essay4165 Words   |  17 Pagesrepresents the danger Jenny inflicted upon herself, pushing her body to the limit, and causing her to contemplate suicide. In the background behind Forrest there is war memorial, this is significant because Forrest fought in the Vietnam War and all of lieutenant Dans ancestors had died in previous wars. The feathers symbolic passage finishes when it falls at Forrests feet. We see his shoes, worn, dirty, ruined. These shoes were a gift from Jenny. The bestRead MoreA Survey Report On The Prevalence Of Hypertension3091 Words   |  13 PagesAccording to the survey report of WHO 2012 World Health Statistics , a third of the world s adults have high blood pressure, the number of deaths due to hypertension is about half of the total number of the deaths due to the stroke and heart disease. With the rapid development of economy and technology, and gradually improve the way people live, continuous improvement of living standards, as well as society as a whole and further exacerbate the degree of aging, hypertension because of its high

Friday, December 27, 2019

Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization Essay - 1008 Words

Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization Dawn Herron- (su200126206) Dr. Caren Stayer World Cultures I online 01/13/14 The End of the Maya Empire: In 800 A.D. the Maya Empire contained of a number of powerful city-states spreading from southern Mexico to northern Honduras. These cities were home to massive populations and were ruled by a leading choice that could understand vast armies and demanded to be inclined from the stars and planets themselves. Maya culture was at its highest, massive temples were lined up in exactness with the night sky, stone carvings were made to celebrate the events of great leaders and long distance skill was prosperous. However a hundred years later,†¦show more content†¦There are many schemes as to what happened to the Maya, but little consent among authorities. The Disaster Theory: Early Maya investigators believed that some tragic events that may have ruined the Maya. An earthquake, volcanic eruption or sudden widespread disease could have demolished cities and killed or evacuated tens of thousands of people, bringing the Maya civilization colliding down. These schemes have been rejected today largely, because of the fact that the weakening of the Maya took about 200 years, some cities fell while others increased, at least for a little while. An earthquake, disease or other widespread tragedy would have smothered out the great Maya cities at one time. The Warfare Theory: The Maya were once said to have been a peaceful, appeasing culture. This duplicate has been crushed by the historical record, new discoveries and newly decoded stone crafters plainly show that the Maya fought often and violently among themselves. City-states such as Dos Pilas, Tikal, Copà ¡n and Quirigua went to war with one another quite often. Dos Pilas was attacked and destroyed in 760 A.D. It is possible that war brings with it financial disaster as well as security damage that could have caused a major result in the Maya cities. The Famine Theory: Pre-classic Maya (1000 B.C. - 300 A.D.) practiced basic existence agriculture, slash-and-burn crop growing on small family plots. They planted mostly corn, beans and squash. On the coast and lakesShow MoreRelatedWhat Caused the Disappearance of the Mayan Civilization? Essay2582 Words   |  11 PagesIt is still a great mystery how the Mayan civilization disappeared. This complex society reached its zenith around approximately 750 AD. However, within the next two hundred years, this civilization which was epic in its time collapsed and disappeared leaving minimal traces and even more scanty detail about what could have caused this disappearance. This knowledge gap has led to a lot of debate among scholars over the various possible reasons behind what seems to us to be the abandonment and desertionRead MoreMaya And The Ancient Civilizations1283 Words   |  6 Pageshistorians still discuss when exactly the Maya civilizations started but the most commonly accepted date is 1800 BCE in the Soconusco Region. Unlike other Mesoamerican civilizations, Maya was not confined to one area of land but rather stretched out over Central America. To historians today, the Maya civilization reached its peak during the Classic Period between AD 250 and 900. At its peak, the Maya population was over 2,000,000 people. Excavations of Mayan cities have uncovered plazas, temples, pyramidsRead MoreThe Origins Of The Ancient Civilization1308 Words   |  6 PagesThat is what happened to the Mayans. In a time span of only one hundred years, the whole Maya population was wiped out. There are several theories about the cause of their decline. Due to their disappearance the great Mayan inventions were lost in time until modern day anthropologists discovered that they made their own calendar and language along with many other things. What anthropologists do know for sure is that the Mayans were an ancient Mesoamerican civilization dating back to 250 B.C â€Å"madeRead MoreCollapse Of The Mayan Civilization1024 Words   |  5 PagesCollapse of the Mayan Civilization There were multiple reasons for the collapse of the Mayan civilization. Some of these reasons are environmental damages/overpopulation, natural disasters, and warfare.(The) Out of these the most likely reason for their collapse was war. (Cartwright) Within this war there were also the battles that were going on within its civilization, the offerings that they made to their gods, and the campaigns to resist the Spanish conquest. In the beginning the Mayans were thoughtRead MoreDiscuss What Different Theories Suggest About the Disappearance of the Mayans.1769 Words   |  8 Pagessuggest about the disappearance of the Mayans. The Mayan civilization began during 2000 B.C. and by 200 A.D. they had reached their peak of development, with more people per square kilometer than modern day New York. They were located throughout northern Central America, and present day southern Mexico. They continued to develop with forms of mathematics and astrometry, with observatories being built to follow the stars and planets. But during the 8th and 9th century the Mayans abandoned their citiesRead MoreExploring Ancient Mysteries Essay687 Words   |  3 Pagesto the great urban Mayan civilization, but theories abound and include varied possible alternatives to explain the relatively abrupt and mysterious disappearance of the Mayan civilization. * Tutankhamen died young, at approximately eighteen (18) years of age. However, his cause of death has been the subject of quite varied scholarly theories and conclusions. Did he die of an injury, of illness, of murder, or something else?. * Minoan Crete was a major civilization in its time, but severalRead MoreA Very Great Change During The Francisco Pizarro s Journey1435 Words   |  6 Pagesthe Spanish Monarchy created The New Spanish on the other side of the Atlantic in which the judicial, administrative and cultural views started to developed. However, the expeditions and battles to the Americas implied sacrifice of human life in the Mayan, Aztecs and Incan Empire. Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean in his march to the South Sea across the Isthmus of Panama, in which Francisco Pizarro was joined. But who was Francisco Pizarro? What did he contribute in the journey toRead MoreA Brief Look at the Mayan Civilization Essay example1548 Words   |  7 PagesAfter the disappearance of the Olmec in 100 BCE many Mesoamerican complex societies arose and continued to carry on many of the things of the Olmec culture. The ceremonial centers that were now being established brought about large populations of residents to the area. Trade networks linked the new areas and extended across Mesoamerica. They developed similar to those in the eastern hemisphere. The earliest heirs to the Olmec were the Maya people. The Maya can be analyzed in terms of their cultureRead MoreThe And Its Impact On The Future1972 Words   |  8 Pagesbeen predicted by scientists, ancient civilizations, different religions, and many others. For example, Nostradamus was one of the most famous scientists that wrote many prophecies and events about the future, his predictions are known worldwide and have impacted societies; as him, there are other scientists such as Isaac Newton, Stephen Hawking, and Richard Noone. Moreover, the Mayans, an ancient civilization, known as one of the most advanced civilizations in the field of mathematics, astronomyRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Joichiro Nagase1856 Words   |  8 Pagesthe intricacies of a point in history almost long-forgotten. The five earliest civilizations, China, Indus-river valley, Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Mayan civilization. It was at that particular point in time, as Junichi would have it, that mankind firs t tasted greed. And with greed came significant individuals who reigned this human aspect to their control, manipulating such an amount of people to join their civilization and become their subjects. Back then, rich people had food, not money. If you

Thursday, December 19, 2019

International Relations The Domestic And The International

International relations are often conceptualized as interactions between clearly delineated nation-states. In this globalizing world, however, transnational actors are playing an increasingly larger part. Diasporic communities hold significant political clout within their adopted lands, as well as their home countries. Accordingly, several scholars have strived to break away from that traditional dichotomy: the domestic versus the international. Expanding on Robert Putnam’s theory of international negotiations as a two-level process (in which politicians must simultaneously please their domestic constituency and the foreign states they are negotiating with), Yossi Shain and Tamara Coffman Wittes refer to a â€Å"three-level game†. Diasporas are distinct from the hostland as well as the homeland, existing in a third space that confers them with unique political agency. To Shain and Wittes, â€Å"diasporas cannot be viewed simply as a domestic constituency within their h ost state but must also be viewed as independent actors in the conflict resolution process† (Shain Wittes, 172). This distinction is particularly significant in light of the fact that the interests of a diasporic community are not always perfectly aligned with those of the residents of the homeland: Shain and Wittes argue that the primary value of the homeland within the diaspora consciousness is its symbolic power to convey and preserve identity – in contrast to those who live in the homeland, who may have moreShow MoreRelated Realism and Neo-Realism Essay1162 Words   |  5 PagesINTRODUCTION The most historically entrenched theoretical perspective in international relations theory is that of classical realism. Surprisingly though classical realism was not sensationalized in the international relations arena until World War II despite its existence in fifth-century Athens. Many great philosophers such as Thucydides, Machiavelli and Hobbes developed the basics of classical realism and in 1948 Hans J. Morgenthau made the great leap into contemporizing classical realismRead MoreThe Political And Legal Aspects Of International Marketing1707 Words   |  7 Pages The Political and Legal Aspects in Relation to Domestic and International Environment of Halal Products Submitted by: Jessa Loreta Billano, 1338020 Submitted to: Dr. Syed M. Ahmed 10 August 2016 Executive Summary The advent of globalisation in the last two decades had an immense impact to the political and legal environments which are essential aspects in international marketing. As there is no existing single political and legal environment because of its complexity onRead MoreInternational Human Resource Management: More than Just Expatriate Management1246 Words   |  5 Pagesorganisations. Nowadays, many people might think that International Human Resource Management (IHRM) is synonymous with expatriate management. However, IHRM covers more than just the management of expatriates. According to Laurent (1986, pp. 91-93), IHRM is a set of activities aimed managing organisational human resources at international level to achieve organisational goals and achieve competitive advantage over competitors at national and international level. IHRM includes typical HRM functions suchRead MoreWhat Are The Characteristics And Dynamics Of Liberalism And Neoliberalist Theories Essay1557 Words   |  7 Pages Within the field of international relations theory, neoliberalism and liberal theory have developed out of the notion of states cooperating within the international system. As states realized that through cooperation additional benefits can be gained in an anarchic world, institutions whose goal was to create cooperation among self-interested states took shape. As states initiated this type of multilateralism for mutual gain within the international system, scholars and theorist such as Stein, KeohaneRead MoreEssay on The Role of Religion in Foreign Policy1019 Words   |  5 Pages one needs to acknowledge that religion does play a role in foreign policy. However, the role religion plays in international relations is often overlooked. This omission of such an important factor that influences international politics in so many ways and on so many levels is detrimental and should be addressed (Fox, 2001:73). Religion influences international politics in varied ways. The phenomenal role of religion in foreign policy is not new or in dispute. Fox purports Read MoreThe Islamic Law s Enforcement Of Halal Regulations1675 Words   |  7 Pageshad an immense impact to the political and legal environments which are essential aspects in international marketing. As there is no existing single political and legal environment because of its complexity on a variety of levels, the political and legal environment will be referred to as one concept in this paper. The political and legal aspects will be discussed in relation to the domestic and international environment. In order to have a grasp of the factors at play, this paper will use the IslamicRead MoreUnited Law Of Public International Law1414 Words   |  6 PagesReport to International Law First concerning the fear that the concept of state sovereignty in public international law is frequently overlooked by politicians, the media and others. Introduction. International Law First has asked for a report concerning the impact of public international law on the concept of state sovereignty in the UK. This report will examine the limits that public international law imposes on state sovereignty and the effect that this has on the balance of power withinRead MoreEco/372 International Trade and Finance Speech Essay1268 Words   |  6 PagesInternational Trade and Finance Speech International Trade and Finance Speech Foreign exchange rates and International trade are important aspects of economics. The United States macroeconomy’s health is determined by these concepts and their factors. International Trade Exports and imports are what encompass international trade balance. When there are more exports over imports a trade surplus happens and when there are more imports over exports a trade deficit happens. A country will acquireRead MoreWhy Has Marxism Been Neglected For International Relations?977 Words   |  4 PagesWhy has Marxism been neglected in International Relations? One of the major reasons why Marxism has generally been neglected in International Relations is due to the scarcity of Marxist writing that is specifically focused on this subject. However, it can be argued that due to this paucity of material, Marxist theory has nothing of substantial value to offer with regards to international relations. Non- Marxists argue that the concepts in Marx’s analysis of capitalist production; class, labor, exchangeRead MoreThe Five International Relations Theories, Realism, Liberalism, And Feminism1241 Words   |  5 PagesThree of the five international relations theories, Realism, Liberalism, and Feminism have very interesting and different positions pertaining to global politics and issues. These theories, although quite different, effect the past present and future of global politics. Realists tend to believe the worst in humanity, that they are inherently selfish, and expect the worst. They are always prepared for war, and will go on the off ensive if it means gaining more power and respect. Liberals do not think

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Lump Sum Contract and Acceptance Strategy

Question: Discuss about the Lump Sum Contract and Acceptance Strategy. Answer: Lump Sum contract: A contract can be termed as the lump sum contract in case the contract agrees to sign an agreement with the building owner to undertake a particular work for a fixed amount of money. In case of the lump sum contract a single price is provided in the tender by the owner of the building with respect to the amount and the type of work that has to be carried out by a contractor (Wren and Davidson, 2011). A particular time frame is also provided by the client to complete the task. The payment is done by the client after the completion of the task or after the different phases of the construction is completed. Lump sum subject to rise and fall A contract can be termed as the lump sum contract subjected to rise and fall, if the payment that is associated with the project is subjected to rise and fall as per the risk that are related to the different stages of construction (Chan and Park, 2005). Cost plus a percentage A contract can be termed as the cost plus a percentage contract if the contractor associated with the construction of the project gets a certain percentage of the total cost of the project over the total cost of the project (Oulahen, 2014). The payment that has been made to the contractor over the total cost of the project can be taken as a pure profit by the contractor and are basically used to meet the other expenses like the overhead charges, phone bills, payments made to the clerical staffs and other administrative staffs or for paying premium of the insurance. Project management In the project management the client seeks to utilize the services of the professional project managers so that the professional contract managers can look after the various processes related to the contract and give them advice to select the most appropriate contract that will be suitable to achieve their goals. Schedule of rates In case of the schedule of rate contract the client produces the schedule of the work that has to be carried out without taking into consideration the quantities. The contractor rates the different tasks and the contractor the freedom to quote different prices that are related to the different price for the labour, different prices for the materials and the separate costs for the equipments which are associated with the project (Ishii, Takano and Muraki, 2014). Sub-contract The contract that takes place between the main contractor and the sub-contractor is called the sub-contract (Li, 2009). A sub-contract comprise of the agreement between the main contractor and the sub-contractor, order for the purchase and/or a legal document which explains the type of work that has to be carried out by the contractor. One of the best contract systems that will be suitable for the completion of the project 1 will be the lump sum contract system. The main benefit of the lump sum contract system is that the prices of the contract are known to the owner of the building beforehand. This contract also provides an opportunity to the contractor to find out ways to reduce the cost associated with the contract (Oulahen, 2014). Further the contract will provide a timeline to the contractor to complete the task and within a fixed budget. Variation The term variation can be explained as the various changes or alterations or modifications that are made in the scope of the work that is mentioned in the contract of a particular construction project. Prime cost items The prime cost item may be explained as the allowance that is associated with the contract so that the other important items which are not added into the contract like the taps, door knobs, parts of the windows etc. Provisional sum A provisional sum can be explained as the additional sum of money whose provision is made in the contract such that it covers the cost of the additional work that is needed to be carried out in the project but whose details are not included into the actual contract, like the work related to the joining the parts and the connections (Ogbu, Asuquo and Oyoh, 2012). Extension of time In certain contracts there are provisions for the extension in the time for the completion of the project tasks in certain conditions and only is the extension in the time of the project is not caused due to the fault of the contractor (Nyce and Maroney, 2011). The time period for which the project is extended is called as the extension of time (EOT) as per the contract. Liquidated damages The liquidity damages may be termed as the amount of money that is mentioned in writing in the contract and has to be paid by the party breaching the terms and condition of the contract, to the other party which has suffered losses due to the breach in the contract. Possession of the site The words Possession of the site is generally written in the contract to point out the right of the contractor to enter the site of construction so that he is able to carry out the activities related to the construction of the project 1. Cooling off period The cooling of period can be explained as the time period which are generally explained in the contract and points out the duration within which the client has the right to cancel the contract. Defects liability period The defects liability period may be explained as the time that is mentioned as per the contract, in which the client has the right to report about any defects in the work that is associated with the contractor (Oladapo, 2007). In the general practices the issues related to the defects in the work done by the contractor is raised in front of the contract administrator, who in turn takes a decision that whether a particular defect has been caused due to the negligence of the contractor or the defect is caused due to the improper use or lack of maintenance of the house. In general practice the defects liability period is generally spanned from six to twelve months. Retention The retention time period may be expressed as the time period which has been prescribed as per the law, that the owner of the project has to retain the documents that are related to the project before the files are disposed (Nyce and Maroney, 2011). In general there are several documents that are retained by the owner of the building, which are illustrated as follows: 1. Various legal documents such as the estate titles and the documents related to the contract of the project and the documents related to the land surrounding the project area. 2. Different policy records like the records related to the survey of the land, reports related to the evaluation of the building etc. 3. Different administrative records that is associated with the maintenance, repair and the reconstruction of the various parts of project. Progress claims The progress claim can be defined as the amount of the money that is claimed by the contractor for the owner of the project after a certain amount of task is completed. In the documents that are related to the progress claim the various works for which the claims are generally made is mentioned (Ranasinghe, 2000). Along with this the claim documents also covers the information related to the time duration in which claimed money has to be recovered, the due payment, the date of payment of the claimed amount and the process that has been adopted by the contractor to calculate the amount claimed. The five essential features of building contract are illustrated as follows: Payment: One of the main features of a building contract is the terms of payment associated with the project. The payments comprise of the accurate estimation of the overall cost of the building construction and the mode which will be adopted for the payment related to a specific project. Scope of the services: It is important that the scope of the services that are associated with the project is properly mentioned in the contract. The scope of the services forms the basis for the formation of the terms and conditions that are associated with the project. A the scope of the work that has to be performed by the building contractor has to be clearly mentioned in the contract. Guarantee of Workmanship: The guarantee of the workmanship refers to the guarantee of the work that is provided by the contractor in writing and is mentioned in the contract properly (Wren and Davidson, 2011). The guarantee of the work can be related to both the services and the equipments that are supplied by the contractor and the guarantee of the workmanship is applicable only for a fixed time period which is also mentioned in the contract. Liquidity Damage clause: The liquidity damage clause is a very important feature of the building contract. The liquidity damages may be termed as the amount of money that is mentioned in writing in the contract and has to be paid by the party breaching the terms and condition of the contract, to the other party which has suffered losses due to the breach in the contract (Kumar and Mishra, 2015). Site location: The location of the site along with the overall description of the site is very much essential for the formation of the contract and deciding the terms and conditions of the contract formation. This information is important to collect before the starting of the construction begins at the site.a) The three most possible causes which caused the breach of the contract by the client that could lead to the termination of the contract are as follows: 1. In ability to make the payment by the client for the work done. 2. Giving contract to another contractor to perform the task without taking the consent of the main contractor. 3. Failure to provide access to the contractor at the work site (Zhang et al., 2012). The three most possible causes which has resulted in the breach of the contract by the me, the builder, that could lead to the possible termination of the contract are as follows: Not carrying out the work as per the scope of the work mentioned in the contract. Not rectifying the defects even after repeated notices by the client. Not being able to adhere to the deadline and huge delays due to which losses are suffered by the client, than the client has the right to cancel the contract. The different documents that form an important part of the contract are illustrated as follows: 1. Drawings: Drawings related to the building construction can be described as the graphical representation of the various building structures that will constructed under the contract. The drawings of the building structures also points towards the location of a particular building structure in the overall building. 2. Specifications: The documents describing the various details of the scope of work that is to carried out by the contract is termed as the specifications. The specification documents comprise of the details of the codes and the standards that has top followed during the construction of the building structures. 3. Agreement: The documents which is identified by all the stakeholders as part of the agreement is very important for the construction of the building contract (Zima, 2015). The documents related to the agreement describe the timeline of the construction of the building and the schedule of payments of the construction work carried out by the contractor (Kumar and Mishra, 2015). 4. Conditions: The conditions are that document that contains the legal rights of both the client and the contractor. These documents give the different methods that have to be followed in case any dispute arises between the client and the contractor. The condition documents also comprise of the different clauses that are related to the insurance, safety, rules of termination and the jurisdiction area. The contract that has been selected for the construction of the Project 1 will be the cost plus percentage contract system Contract Parties: The XYZ developers, Elizabeth road, NSW and the Tony Johnson, Lenin street, NSW have come together hereby to agree that a house will be constructed at the property that is situated as 14, Lenin street and are legally defined as the lots 6,7 and the south1/2 Lot 3, West 60 feet, south of lot 4, west 50 foot of lot 5 and lot 8, block no. 31, 14 Lenin street, NSW. Contract documents: The contract terms and condition comprise of the various documents that are illustrated below and comprise of the complete terms of the agreement that is made between both the parties (Chan and Park, 2005). The terms and condition will be prevailing over any conflicting provision in the documents which are incorporated as a reference: The plans and the architectural drawings which are dated 7/ July/2016 with a total of 25 pages are hereby incorporated into this document. The documents related to specifications that are dated 7/July/2016 with a total of 15 pages are hereby incorporated into this document. The schedule of the items allowed with date 7/July/2016 with 13 number of pages are hereby incorporated into this document. Building Plans: The contractor has agreed to construct that the building will be constructed in accordance with the specifications and the designs which have to be supplied by the client and are added as a reference in the paragraph III Contract documents. The sole owner of the plans and the designs of the building is the buyer and only he has the legal right to use the plans and designs (Ishii, Takano and Muraki, 2014). Hereby the owner of the building declares that the builder is harmless to the any copyright issues which might crop up die to the application of the building plans. Completion time: After taking into consideration the different conditions and factors, it has been agreed upon by both the parties that is the weather conditions permits than the building shall be constructed completely a time period of no less than 200 days. After the possession of all the permits that are required to start the construction activity, the process of construction has to begin within thirty days. Financing: This contract is contingent upon the buyer obtaining a construction loan in the amount of $ 275,000. The total fees and the expenses that are related to obtaining the loan has to borne by the owner of the building (Li, 2009) . There is no requirement for the builder to start the construction activity is there is no proper confirmation in writing provided by the owner about the confirmation of the loan from the lender. Contract price: Hereby the owner of the project declares to pay a total of $ 275,000 to the builder on the successful of the building as per the terms and the conditions that has been mentioned in the contract and the builder agrees to provide all the labor, materials, equipment, tools, and other services necessary to construct the house (Ogbu, Asuquo and Oyoh, 2012). After the successful completion of the project 65% of the total cost of the project will be paid while remaining will be paid after the final inspection and acceptance. Access to the property site: It is the responsibility of the owner of the property to provide safe access to the builder to the site. Inspection and final acceptance: After the final inspection the owner will provide the builder the deficiencies if there are any, in the building. the final occupation will provided to the owner only after the final inspection is over and the final payment is completed. Effective Date and Signature: This contract shall become effective on the date it is signed by both parties. We, the undersigned, have read, understood, and agree to each of the provisions of this contract and hereby acknowledge receipt of a copy of this contract. By: _ on behalf of_ Title:_ Date : _ By:_ Date : _ By: _ Date :_ Attached Contract Documents: Final Contract 1. Plans and Specifications 2. Allowance Schedule The value of margin= 12% and GST = 10%. Total= 22% TRADE AREA GROSS VALUE ($) VALUE OF MARGIN AND GST ($) NET VALUE ($) % OF NET CONTRACT Preliminaries 25000 5500 30500 11.09% Excavator 5000 1100 6100 2.21% Concreter 19000 4180 23180 8.42% Bricklayer 24000 5280 29280 10.64% Carpenter 43000 9460 52460 19.076% Joiner 15000 3300 18300 6.65% Doors and Windows 26000 5720 31720 11.534% Roofer 16000 3520 19520 7.09% Linings/Insulation 20000 4400 24400 8.872% Electrician (Provisional Sum) 24000 5280 29280 10.64% Plumber and Drainer (Provisional sum) 24000 5280 29280 10.64% Tiler 12000 2640 14640 5.32% Painter 10000 2200 12200 4.436% Landscaper (Provisional sum) 12000 2640 14640 5.323% CONTRACT SUM 275000 TRADE VALUE ($) Month 1, % Complete Claim For Month 1 Month 2, % Complete Claim For Month 2 Month 3, % Complete Claim For Month 3 Month 4, % Complete Claim For Month 4 Month 5, % Complete Claim For Month 5 Month 6, % Complete Claim For Month 6 Month 7, % Complete Claim For Month 7 Preliminaries 25000 35 8750 45 11250 60 15000 75 18750 90 22500 95 23750 100 25000 Excavator 5000 100 5000 100 5000 100 5000 100 5000 100 5000 100 5000 100 5000 Concreter 19000 60 11400 100 19000 100 19000 100 19000 100 19000 100 19000 100 19000 Bricklayer 24000 20 4800 70 16800 100 24000 100 24000 100 24000 100 24000 100 24000 Carpenter 43000 0 0 30 12900 75 32250 100 43000 100 43000 100 43000 100 43000 Joiner 15000 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 3000 50 7500 95 14250 100 15000 Doors and Windows 26000 10 2600 60 15600 80 20800 100 26000 100 26000 100 26000 100 26000 Roofer 16000 0 0 0 0 70 11200 95 15200 100 16000 100 16000 100 16000 Linings/Insulation 20000 5 1000 5 1000 10 2000 60 12000 100 20000 100 20000 100 20000 Electrician (Provisional Sum) 24000 10 2400 18 4320 18 4320 60 14400 75 18000 85 20400 100 24000 Plumber and Drainer (Provisional sum) 24000 0 0 18 4320 18 4320 60 14400 75 18000 85 20400 100 24000 Tiler 12000 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 1800 60 7200 100 12000 100 12000 Painter 10000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 3000 75 7500 100 10000 Landscaper (Provisional sum) 12000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 1200 100 12000 Contract Sum 275000 35950 90190 137890 196550 229200 252500 275000 Money paid After Completion = 50% of contract sum= $137500 Total Money Paid after DLP = $137500. References Chan, S. and Park, M. (2005). Project cost estimation using principal component regression. Construction Management and Economics, 23(3), pp.295-304. Ishii, N., Takano, Y. and Muraki, M. (2014). An order acceptance strategy under limited engineering man-hours for cost estimation in EngineeringProcurementConstruction projects. International Journal of Project Management, 32(3), pp.519-528. Kumar, S. and Mishra, A. (2015). Critical Erosion Area Identification Based on Hydrological Response Unit Level for Effective Sedimentation Control in a River Basin. Water Resour Manage, 29(6), pp.1749-1765. Li, H. (2009). Study on Construction Cost of Construction Projects. Asian Social Science, 5(8). Nyce, C. and Maroney, P. (2011). Are Territorial Rating Models Outdated in Residential Property Insurance Markets? Evidence From the Florida Property Insurance Market. Risk Management and Insurance Review, 14(2), pp.201-232. Ogbu, C., Asuquo, C. and Oyoh, A. (2012). Factors Affecting the Pre-Contract use of the Bill of Quantities. FJOTE, 7(1). OHTSU, H., MIKAKE, S., IJIRI, Y. and SAKAI, K. (2006). A Study On Estimation Of Cost Variation On Tunnel Construction Projects. Journal of Construction Management, JSCE, 13, pp.101-114. Oladapo, A. (2007). A quantitative assessment of the cost and time impact of variation orders on construction projects. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 5(1), pp.35-48. Oulahen, G. (2014). Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards. Environmental Management, 55(3), pp.603-615. Ranasinghe, M. (2000). Impact of correlation and induced correlation on the estimation of project cost of buildings. Construction Management and Economics, 18(4), pp.395-406. Wren, D. and Davidson, G. (2011). Using lake sedimentation rates to quantify the effectiveness of erosion control in watersheds. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 66(5), pp.313-322. Zhang, L., Luo, T., Liu, X. and Wang, Y. (2012). Altitudinal variation in leaf construction cost and energy content of Bergenia purpurascens. Acta Oecologica, 43, pp.72-79. Zima, K. (2015). The Case-based Reasoning Model of Cost Estimation at the Preliminary Stage of a Construction Project. Procedia Engineering, 122, pp.57-64.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

What Does Beatrice’s Language Show free essay sample

What does Beatrice’s language show about her attitudes towards different men in the two different scenes you have studied? 10th February 2012 Introduction Much ado nothing is a romantic Shakespeare play about two couples of lovers. The play is set in Messina, deep in the heart of Italy and is based in Elizabethan times. The lovers are namely; Claudio and Hero, Bennedick and Beatrice. Claudio is a noble Florentine count from Florence. Bennedick is a war hero from Padua. Both are honourable war heroes fighting for Don Pedro the prince of Aragon. Beatrice is the niece of Leonato the Governor of Messina. At the beginning of the play Don Pedro and his valiant fighters return from the wars to Messina. While at Messina Claudio immediately falls in love with Hero. However Beatrice and Bennedick trade insults and banter. Bennedick and Beatrice seem to have more experience in love as they take the more cautious approach. We will write a custom essay sample on What Does Beatrice’s Language Show or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Claudio immediately falls in love with Hero and show no hesitations into throwing himself head first in a relationship. Bennedick seems to have held many relationships with different women,† Then is courtesy a turn coat. But it is certain I am loved of all ladies only you excepted† he states rather regretfully. This shows that perhaps even though he is loved all ladies, the only one lacking is the only one he is interested in. The play is rather merry and light-headed to start with, people meeting and trying to impress each other with clever speech and poetic sentences. However there are no indications of darker moments destined to happen later in the play. STEP 2 Beatrice is not the typical Elizabethan woman, she is not afraid to make use of her wits at insulting and sharing sexual innuendo with other men. Signor Mountanto† is the insulting name which she devised for Bennedick at the start of the play, this name has two meanings. Firstly Mountanto is a move in fencing, it is the upward thrust of the sward which suggests she thinks he is stuck up and to arrogant for his own good. But also the more devious meaning could be referring to Bennedick as being rather popular with the woman, he even says so himself later â€Å"But it is certain I am loved of all ladies†. She could be referring to him as being a bit of a Wing man because Mountanto could be a reference to the move mounting in sexual intercourse. She gets the better of everyone she argues with â€Å"You always end with a jades trick, I know you of old†. This means that she has some history with him, however Elizabethan women of the time rarely spoke showing that Beatrice has a rather unique individual personality. Perhaps it’s the fact she was brought up an orphan by her Uncle that made her the way she was. She’s tough on the outside and likes to make sarcastic comments to make herself look full of personality. However on the inside she is like any other woman. I was born to speak all matter and no Mirth† she tells Don Pedro later in a conversation. We know from contextual knowledge she is the orphan of Leonato relative. Perhaps the loss of her parents and other events in her childhood have actually shaped her into the loud mouthed, well-spoken individual she is in the play. Beatrice’s weaknesses definitely do not include speaking and confidence but rather keeping her mouth shut and refrainin g from insulting everyone she clashes with. She’s bold, quick to insult and proud. Perhaps the word Arrogant sums her up in full. At the beginning of the play Beatrice cannot wait to show her disgust for Bennedick interrupting with â€Å"I pray you, is Signor Mountanto returned from the wars or no†? This shows he is clearly in her thoughts but she is somehow keen to show everyone else her dislike for him. Mountanto was a fencing move of the time, so she probably meant for people to think she was implying that he was proud and stuck up. However her sarcastic tone shades it in a completely different light all together. She also probably was referring to mounting (in intercourse) as an inside joke to those who scrambled deeper into the comment. This was to impress people with her ability to give a word two directions. However beneath all this fancy language we can derive that Bennedick was painted all over Beatrice’s thoughts and she cannot resist asking about his well-being. When the messenger states he knows none of that name, Hero her cousin says â€Å"My cousin means Signor Bennedick of Padua† this clearly shows that not only is Bennedick and Beatrice’s thoughts he is also a subject of conversation and discussion between Beatrice and Hero. The way Beatrice speaks seemingly spitefully about Bennedick shows us she is perhaps interested in Bennedick and trying not to arouse the suspicion of the messenger and her uncle. By adding sarcastic comments and insults where Bennedick name appears shows us she is trying hard not to bring out her real feelings for him, the name â€Å"Signor Mountanto† is one of the names Beatrice has devised to insult Bennedick however the fact that the name is so complex in meaning and the inside joke so well thought out shows us she has really thought about this insult and it has not an insult off the top of her head. Beatrice is more devious and careful about relationships than Claudio who seems rather desperate to get with Hero and throw himself headfirst into a relationship that he perhaps knows nothing about. This suggests perhaps she has more experience in love and relationships and has also experienced disappointment and is afraid of it. STEP 3 When Bennedick and Beatrice meet they immediately engage in a fierce verbal battle, trading insults and arguing dramatically. â€Å"Beatrice: I wonder that you will still be talking Signor Bennedick, nobody marks you. Bennedick: My dear lady disdain. Are you yet living? This short extract tells us that the Bennedick and Beatrice clearly have some history. At the time people meeting for the first time would strive to impress each other with elegant speech and poetic talk as the messenger said to Leonato in the introduction â€Å"doing in the figure of a lamb the feats of a lion† later Leonato responds with â€Å"How much better is it to weep a t joy, than to joy at weeping†. The messenger is trying to impress Leonato with alliterations Figure of a Lamb (beginning with F and L) and then saying something the opposite (Feats of a Lion) but beginning with the same letter. After hearing this play with words Leonato feels obliged to respond later with word play â€Å"How much better is it to weep at joy, than to joy at weeping† this highlights that first impressions at the time were important and seen as a chance to promote ones image and create awe. However as Bennedick and Beatrice have some history and know each other well as Beatrice later says â€Å"You always end with a Jade’s trick, I know you of old† this quote shows that perhaps Beatrice not only knows Bennedick well but also argues regularly with him too. This argument is perhaps not the first argument in their â€Å"merry war†. The fact that they argue also suggests something else. The reason for their argument could have been caused by the fact that they perhaps had a failed relationship before or disagreement â€Å"Indeed my lord, he leant it me awhile and I gave use for it, a double heart for his single one. Marry, once before he won it of me with false dice: therefore your grace may well say I have lost it† this is a short extract taken from Beatrice’s conversation with Don Pedro later on. It shows that perhaps Beatrice regrets losing her relationship with Bennedick. However despite this what entertains the audience most is Beatrice and Bennedick’s arguments. Conflicts are what make things interesting. They make entertainment successful because more often than not, there is a resolution, a road to recovery and that’s what makes them so satisfying to watch. The same applies to much ado nothing, if everything was a rosy garden than the film would bear no purpose and entertainment. To make a play interesting there must always be a spanner in the works; a few examples: Eastenders and The Simpsons are just a few examples. These programs have conflicts and arguments quite regularly; it’s the argument that produces an interesting scene and an interesting solution. However one thing must be made straight, in Elizabethan times it was more difficult to rehearse and display convincing physical conflicts, therefore the solution was to put in verbal conflicts instead. This made sure there was some sort of problem in the play but it was realistic and convincing enough to entertain the audience. Comedy conflicts usually include some banter which makes the audience laugh and after all making an audience laugh is the key to success in plays intended for the upper class to watch in Elizabethan times. STEP 4 Beatrice has not had too good an experience with love as Shakespeare portrays especially well in the conversation involving Beatrice and Don Pedro. In the rest of the play we get the impression that Beatrice is loud mouthed and proud however in this conversation she seems more humble and more willing to speak honestly and not sarcastically because of Don Pedro. Don Pedro was the prince at the time it was custom that all ladies respected him because of his high social status. Beatrice was no exception. She tells Don Pedro of her failed relationship with Bennedick rather regretfully â€Å"Indeed my lord, he leant it me awhile and I gave use for it, a double heart for his single one. Marry, once before he won it of me with false dice: therefore your grace may well say I have lost it† this extract shows that underneath the strong personality Beatrice is the same as everyone else. She too has her ups and downs. Due to her failed relationship with Bennedick she has a negative approach to relationships because she is weary of disappointment. This is much unlike Claudio who has probably never held a relationship, never been cheated on and never experienced disappointment. When Don Pedro said â€Å"will you have me lady† Beatrice replies â€Å"No, my lord, unless I might have another for working days. Your grace is too costly to wear everyday† this is the first time the audience have heard Beatrice down grading herself and being modest, she is perhaps feeling honoured to not only be talking to Don Pedro the Prince but to have been proposed to by Don Pedro. From this we can draw that the person that Beatrice appears to be throughout the rest of the play; tough, proud and arrogant is not her real self. Underneath she is the same as everyone else she has emotions and can be modest too. In conclusion, Beatrice reacts differently to different men depending on who they are. She has history with Bennedick which might explain her aggressive and sarcastic attitude towards Bennedick. Don Pedro the prince and is of high social status so she tones down her attitude, becomes modest suddenly and respects Don Pedro well. To the messenger she is not afraid to share some banter and speak rudely and to Leonato her uncle, she maintains the same arrogant attitude but with a respect for him. The contrasting attitudes make Beatrice seem like many different people and the fact that she has so many different reactions towards different people in the same situation entertains the audience because one person has never had so many different personalities.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Nursing Care Within Mental Health Role Social Work Essay Essay Example

Nursing Care Within Mental Health Role Social Work Essay Essay This assignment will allow the writer explain an facet of nursing attention within mental wellness function. As it is stated in the NMC ( 2008 ) as a wellness professional, you are personally accountable for actions and skips in your pattern so this is taking into consideration when treating any intercessions with service users. The writer is traveling to critical discuss and examine in item the assisting attacks used in the intervention of intoxicant maltreatment and draw decisions from them as what is seen as best grounds pattern. The facet of nursing that the writer is traveling to discourse is motivational questioning from the pattern of handling alcohol addiction. This is where that writer foremost seen Motivational Interviewing being used in a Community Drug and Alcohol arrangement. Miller and Rollnick ( 1991 ) defined motivational interviewing as a directive, client centred counselling manner for arousing behaviour alteration by assisting clients to research and decide ambivalency and stated in the Oxford University Dictionary ( 2005 ) ( internet ref 1 ) motive is described as the ground or grounds behind one s actions or behavior and this is the extreme importance for a service user to be at a phase of desiring to alter for themselves and non for others such as household members. We will write a custom essay sample on Nursing Care Within Mental Health Role Social Work Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Nursing Care Within Mental Health Role Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Nursing Care Within Mental Health Role Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This thesis will be looking at the rule of motivational interviewing ( MI ) and the client centred attack that was produced by Carl Rogers in ( 1951 ) which has provided the underpinning of MI. Besides, it will discourse the usage of Motivational Interviewing when a client wants to go abstainer from intoxicant and the phases of alteration theoretical account set up by Prochaska, Norcross and DiClemente ( 1982 ) that has become a tool used when looking at the different alterations in which a client could be placed in. The thesis will besides look at the positive and negative utilizations of MI in alcohol addiction. Introduction of Motivation Interviewing Motivational interviewing ( MI ) was developed to handle job drinkers and was foremost described by Miller ( 1983, cited by Rollnick and Miller 1995 ) in an article discoursing Behavioural Psychotherapy. Subsequently in 1991 Rollnick and Miller characterized Motivation Interviewing as a directing, client-centred guidance manner for arousing behaviour alteration by assisting clients to research and decide ambivalency . It was in 2002 where they subsequently explained that Motivational Interviewing was an assistance to ease the motion through decisional analysis and behavior alteration . Furthermore, LA Lawendowski ( 1998 ) ( Internet ref 3 ) provinces that motivational interviewing is a client-centred therapy and has phases of alteration in the natural recovery from dependence. However, the theoretical account has been used for assortment of other jobs such as Drug Abuse ( Scott et al, 1996 ) Smoking ( Rollnick, S et Al, 1997 ) Gambling Problems ( Diskin and Hodgins 2009 ) Drug Dependence ( Saunders, B et Al, 1995 and Miller, W et Al, 2003 ) Excessive imbibing ( reexamine see Vasilaki et Al, 2006 ) ( Arkowitz, H and Miller, W.R 2008 ) . Motivational interviewing is a psychotherapeutics method which lets the service user to influence and enables alterations in their lives ( Hussein Rassool, G and Kilpatrick, B.1998 ) . Motivational interviewing is a type of reding which allows the service users to discourse helpfully about altering their behavior within alcohol addiction ( Obert, JL 2005 ) ( Internet ref 2 ) . This type of intercession is exceptionally helpful for those service users who are disinclined to alter their life style and open about altering. It s designed to decide ambivalency as it will take the service user to come on following to the way of alteration. Rollnick, Miller and Butler ( 2008 ) states that if a patient appears to be unmotivated to alter that there is nil anybody can make to alter this. They suggest that this statement is normally wrong. They believe that the attack a professional should take is to speak with the patient about their wellness. This can significantly rock their personal motive for behaviour alteration. Arkowitz and Miller ( 2008 ) states that motivational interviewing Is to increase intrinsic motive to alter that which arises from personal ends and values instead than from such external beginnings as others efforts to carry, cajole or hale the individual to alter . By professional organic structures or even household members supercharging the client to alter this can hold an opposite consequence and do that individual have a lessen aspiration to alter. Brehm and Brehm ( 1981 ) reported that when a client is placed into this state of affairs they become loath to alter as they perceive a menace to their personal freedom. Miller and Rollnick ( 2002 ) have mentioned that there is a difference among the technique and the spirit of Motivational Interviewing. If the professional organic structure gets engrossed by the technique, they likely risk the loss of the overall spirit of Motivational Interviewing. Miller and Rollnick ( 1995 ) mentioned that We believe it is critical to separate between the spirit of motivational interviewing and techniques that we have recommended to attest that spirit. Clinicians and trainers who become excessively focussed on affairs of technique can lose sight of the spirit and manner that are cardinal to the attack . Rollnick, Miller and Butler ( 2008 ) characterized the spirit as the following header Collaborative, redolent and honouring of patient liberty: Collaboration. Is where there is a joint decision-making procedure. This is of import in the wellness behavior alteration as it is merely the patient who can originate alterations. Evocative. This happens when the client triggers their ain motives and resources to alter. The client will hold their ain ends and aspirations and dreams so they do non necessitate the way from the professional organic structure. Honoring patients liberty. This is where MI accepts that the clients have a pick about the alteration in their lives and the professional organic structures still can rede, inform and on juncture can warn but their picks it is finally the clients pick ( Rollnick, S et al 2008 ) . They describe this manner of interaction as non-directing but steering, dancing and non wrestling, listening at least every bit much as stating. Phillips and Callaghan ( 2009 ) agrees with this statement and describes motivational interviewing as the following the nurse must avoid lecture, faulting and arousing guilt as this is of import as these places are likely to take to patient defensiveness and the nurse will follow the impersonal place in relation to the person s substance usage . As mentioned before that motivational interviewing is a client-centred attack which needs a curative relationship between the client and the professional organic structure as it is needed for alteration harmonizing to Carl Rogers ( 1951 ) . Three of these to reference that are linked to the spirit of motivational interviewing are therapist genuineness, empathy and unconditioned positive respect. Miller and Rollnick ( 2002 ) mentioned that motivational interviewing is a client-centred or individ ual centred in its focal point on the concerns and positions of the person, every bit good as in our heavy trust on and liability to the work of Carl Rogers and his co-workers. In this sense, motivational interviewing is an development of the client-centerd attack that Rogers developed. Arkowitz and Burke ( 2008 ) province that Motivational Interviewing is different than Carl Rogers attack as the importance of the intensifying intrinsic motive to alter, deciding ambivalency about alteration and the increasing alteration talk through selective responding. It is non uncommon for people to experience ambivalent about alterations in their lives. It is said that it a normal and common constituent of psychological job. Rollnick and Miller ( 1991 ) province that ambivalency is a province of head in which a individual has coexisting but conflicting experiencing about something. Clients who have an habit-forming job who so proceeds with reding will experience conflicting experiencing about their motive. A client can go non-cooperative with the counselor and back once more in a few proceedingss. Orford ( 1985 ) province that when it comes to habit-forming behavior struggles clearly plays a cardinal function. Clients who have imbibing jobs most times acknowledged that the hazards, cost and injury implicated their behavior. The clients are invariably traveling back and forward as they are non certain what to make about their state of affairs. Miller and Rollnick ( 1991 ) explain ambivalency as non a bad mark but to see it to be normal, accepta ble and apprehensible. Once the counselor understands this of ambivalency the counselor will cover with the client in a wholly different manner. Once the counselor realizes the normalcy of ambivalency and the manner in which it works. There will be a noticeable addition of verbal communicating and less opposition between the client and counselor. Their curative relationship will better. Motivational Interviewing is said to back up the client preparedness to alter and supply them with the accomplishments, helps and schemes for alteration ( Miller and Rollnick 1991, Hester and Miler 1989 ) . When looking at the client s ambivalency it can be place on the phases of alteration by Prochaska and DiClemente ( 1982, 1984, 1985 and 1986 ) . Miller and Rollnick ( 2002 ) describe Motivational Interviewing as a tool to help clients through decisional analysis and behavioral alterations. However, in 2001 Bishop refers to Motivational Interviewing as a method adjusted from the theoretical account called Cycle of alteration that was developed by Prochaska and DiClemente ( 1982, 1984, 1985 and 1986 ) . The client varies with respects to where they are on the rhythm of alteration. There are six phases in which the client can put themselves on. The phases of alteration are: Pre-contemplation this is where the client has non recognized that there is a issue with their behavior that needs to be changed Contemplation this is where they have recognized that there is an issue but non yet prepared or convinced ofA desiring to do a alteration Preparation/Determination the clients fixing for alteration where planning and committedness are secured Action/Willpower the client changes their behavior Maintenance client keeping the behavioral alterations Relapse this is where the client returns to their older behavior and renounce the recent alterations ( Internet ref 4 ) This rhythm is non fixed, it is unstable. The client is able start and coating anyplace within the rhythm. As like most alkies if they are non committed to alter their behavior sing their imbibing so relapses do happen. Prochaska and DiClemente ( 1983 ; 1983 ) province that wheel theoretical accounts approach allow the client to travel in and out of assorted phases of alteration. Prochaska and DiClemente ( 1991 ) suggest that people move both forwards and backwards round the rhythm of alteration, and spend changing sums of clip at each phase. Peoples pass through all phases. An illustration of this could be a client in the action phase into backsliding and so develop into pre-contemplative about alteration. Furthermore, the client could travel to preparation phrase from the backsliding phase. This could assist the client in taking obstructions that may hold disallowed them efficaciously keeping the yearning to alter their behavior ( Schulz, J. and Floyd, M.R 2002 ) . Prochaska and P rochaska ( 1991 ) suggested that if there is a mismatch between phases and procedures so the motion through the phases will be impeded and the individual will look immune or non-compliant. Equally good as the phases of alteration Motivational Interviewing has four guiding rules. Miller, Rollnick and Butler ( 2008 ) province that these are the guiding rules: Resist Understand Listen Empower This is merely a touch on what Motivational Interviewing is approximately and on the following chapter it will discourse the research for and against Motivational Interviewing in alcohol addiction. Critical discuss Motivational Interviewing in Alcoholism